Essentially, the descriptive abstract only describes the work being summarized.Some researchers consider it an outline of the work, rather than a summary.Then revise or add connecting phrases or words to make the narrative flow clearly and smoothly. "Criteria for Acceptable Abstracts: A Survey of Abstracters' Instructions." 14 (April 1963): 149-160; Abstracts. "Common Weaknesses in Traditional Abstracts in hte Social Sciences." 115 (January 2015 ): 41-47; Writing Report Abstracts. If the full-text is not available, go to the USC Libraries main page and enter the title of the article [NOT the title of the journal].
Essentially, the descriptive abstract only describes the work being summarized.Tags: Great Gatsby Essay QuestionsEssay On InternetRococo And Neoclassicism EssaysScientific Essay On Global WarmingLiterature Essay TopicsMfa Creative Writing RankingWho Invented Homework And Why
The target (recipient) of your proposal may have other criteria that they want you to address in your proposal.
It's good to find this info before you submit the proposal.
At the very least, and for the simplest format: You will need to clearly define the hypothesis or research question, and include a description of the background and significance of the problem.
To demonstrate that you have thought about this, you will need to review the current literature on this topic, with cited sources.
That is, the researcher presents and explains all the main arguments and the important results and evidence in the paper.
An informative abstract includes the information that can be found in a descriptive abstract [purpose, methods, scope] but it also includes the results and conclusions of the research and the recommendations of the author.The researcher evaluates the paper and often compares it with other works on the same subject.Critical abstracts are generally 400-500 words in length due to the additional interpretive commentary. A descriptive abstract indicates the type of information found in the work.An abstract summarizes, usually in one paragraph of 300 words or less, the major aspects of the entire paper in a prescribed sequence that includes: 1) the overall purpose of the study and the research problem(s) you investigated; 2) the basic design of the study; 3) major findings or trends found as a result of your analysis; and, 4) a brief summary of your interpretations and conclusions.Sometimes your professor will ask you to include an abstract, or general summary of your work, with your research paper.Then ask yourself: if your abstract was the only part of the paper you could access, would you be happy with the amount of information presented there? If the answer is "no" then the abstract likely needs to be revised.A critical abstract provides, in addition to describing main findings and information, a judgment or comment about the study’s validity, reliability, or completeness.How do you know when you have enough information in your abstract?A simple rule-of-thumb is to imagine that you are another researcher doing a similar study.Although it is the first section of your paper, the abstract should be written last since it will summarize the contents of your entire paper.A good strategy to begin composing your abstract is to take whole sentences or key phrases from each section of the paper and put them in a sequence that summarizes the contents. University of North Carolina; Borko, Harold and Seymour Chatman. University of Wisconsin, Madison; Hartley, James and Lucy Betts. Writing Tutorial Services, Center for Innovative Teaching and Learning. Citing to just a journal article's abstract does not confirm for the reader that you have conducted a thorough or reliable review of the literature.