A whites-only suffrage, they argued, would preserve the integrity, independence, and virtue of the vote.
Delegate Benjamin Martin, a Democrat from Philadelphia County, spoke for the majority at the Pennsylvania convention when he said, “It is altogether futile and useless to pursue the experiment of making the African and Indian equal to the white citizen.” Perhaps thinking about the Fogg suit, Martin continued that voting rights would ill-serve blacks, because an aroused public would turn them away from the polls, thus “holding out expectations to them which could never be realized.” He warned of attracting African Americans to the state.
By 1860, 28 of 33 states, comprising about 97 percent of the nation’s free black population, had adopted such racially restrictive suffrage.
In 1860, no state imposed property qualifications for voting and only a half-dozen had tax-paying requirements.
The American problem with voter suppression started with a void in the original Constitution, which did not include a right to vote.
This omission allowed states to suppress the votes of non-whites by various means.- Hoof Beats Magazine Dec 14, 1966 - Phoenix Trotting Park Suspends Racing Indefinitely - Harness Horse Magazine Sep 24, 1969 - Ong Hing v. - Find ACase Apr 14, 1983 - Arizona Rites Held for James Dunnigan; Was Founder of Buffalo Raceway - The Sun and the Erie County Independent Nov 15, 1991 - Auto Swap USA - Arizona Business Gazette Dec 9, 1997 - Film Crew to Aid Birds - The Arizona Republic Sep 21, 2006 - Goodyear's Horse Track Becomes 'White Elephant' - West Valley View Dec 2010 - Phoenix Trotting Park History - Three Rivers Historical Society Newsletter Oct 10, 2011 - Goodyear Trotting Park Receives Interest - West Valley View Oct 22, 2012 - Man Injured in Fall at Goodyear Trotting Park - West Valley View Mar 28, 2014 - The Short Life and Long Death of Phoenix Trotting Park - Harness Racing Update Jun 18, 2014 - Readers' Picks of Biggest West Valley Eyesores - The Arizona Republic Jan 12, 2016 - Huge Trotting Park in Goodyear Marks 50 Years Standing Empty - The Arizona Republic Jan 14, 2016 - For .5 Million, You Could Own the Phoenix Trotting Park in Goodyear - The Arizona Republic May 17, 2017 - Demolition Zone Ahead - West Valley View May 17, 2017 - The Old Phoenix Trotting Park Set for Demolition - AZ Family 3TV / CBS 5 May 18, 2017 - All Abandoned: 8 Forbidden & Forgotten Spots around Arizona - College Times May 20, 2017 - Iconic Phoenix Trotting Park along I-10 in Goodyear set for demolition - Arizona Republic May 21, 2017 - Phoenix Trotting Park, an iconic horse-racing track, will be demolished - KTAR News May 22, 2017 - Abandoned Phoenix Trotting Park scheduled to be demolished in December - FOX10 Phoenix Jul 9, 2017 - Goodyear Police Asking People to Stay Away from Trotting Park - FOX10 Phoenix Sep 26, 2017 - Phoenix horse trotting park set for demolition Wednesday - AZ Family 3TV / CBS 5 Sep 27, 2017 - RAW VIDEO: Aerial view of Goodyear horse trotting park demolition - AZ Family 3TV / CBS 5 Sep 27, 2017 - Facebook Live Stream of trotting park demolition - AZ Family 3TV / CBS 5 Sep 27, 2017 - Abandoned Phoenix Horse Trotting Park demolished in Goodyear - FOX10 Phoenix Sep 27, 2017 - What is the fate of the Phoenix Trotting Park in Goodyear? The more that efforts to suppress voting rights in America change, the more they remain the same.Look to Philadelphia, he said, where blacks congregate “from all the southern States, and have so corrupted each other, that they are now in a situation far worse than the bondage from which they have escaped.It is impossible to walk through Cedar ward, in a clear warm evening, for the black population.” African Americans countered such claims and protested “white-only” suffrage by issuing “The Appeal of Forty Thousand Citizens Threatened with Disenfranchisement to the People of Pennsylvania.” The appeal asked why the new state constitution denied “that all men are born equally free by making political rights depend on the skin in which a man is born? Constitution or any federal voting rights laws, the disenfranchised black people of Pennsylvania and other states had no recourse to any authority higher than their discriminatory state constitutions and hostile state courts." Obama chose Desert Vista, home to some of Phoenix's best and brightest students, to present his ideas for repairing America's ailing mortgage finance apparatus.Some activists assembled to plead with the president to take more aggressive steps to combat climate change, such as renouncing the Keystone XL oil pipeline.As the winners in this new political order, white men shaped the nation’s laws and policies without regard to women or minorities.This shift in voting rights did not occur without challenge.The political culture in Arizona, my home state, is often coarse, racialized and divisive.President Barack Obama's visit there Tuesday gave the world another opportunity to see it.