When using the 'author, date' system, the brief references included in the text must be followed up with full publication details, usually as an alphabetical reference list or bibliography at the end of your piece of work.
The examples given below are used to indicate the main principles.
The format for the text citation is normally exactly the same as for a published work and should give the speaker's name and the date of the presentation.
If the idea or information that you wish to cite has been told to you personally, perhaps in a discussion with a lecturer or a tutor, it is normal to reference the point as shown in the example below. comm.' stands for personal communication; no further information is usually required.
This allows the writer to fully acknowledge her/his sources, without significantly interrupting the flow of the writing.
As the name suggests, the citation in the text normally includes the name(s) (surname only) of the author(s) and the date of the publication.
When multi-authored works have been quoted, it is important to include the names of all the authors, even when the text reference used was Note that in the last two references above, it is the book title and the journal name that are italicised, not the title of the paper or article.
The name highlighted should always be the name under which the work will have been filed on the library shelves or referenced in any indexing system.
Do not forget that you should also include reference to the source of any tables of data, diagrams or maps that you include in your work.
If you have included a straight copy of a table or figure, then it is usual to add a reference to the table or figure caption thus: You may need to cite an unpublished idea or discussion point from an oral presentation, such as a lecture.