These related words can be, depending on the language: determiners, pronouns, numerals, quantifiers, possessives, adjectives, past and passive participles, articles, verbs, adverbs, complementizers, and adpositions.Gender class may be marked on the noun itself, but will also always be marked on other constituents in a noun phrase or sentence.
This article is about grammatical rules of agreement with nouns.
For uses of language associated with men and women, see Language and gender.
(See below.) The grammatical gender of a noun manifests itself in two principal ways: in the modifications that the noun itself undergoes, and in modifications of other related words (agreement). The gender of a noun may affect the modifications that the noun itself undergoes, particularly the way in which the noun inflects for number and case.
For example, a language like Latin, German or Russian has a number of different declension patterns, and which pattern a particular noun follows may be highly correlated with its gender. A concrete example is provided by the German word See, which has two possible genders: when it is masculine (meaning "lake") its genitive singular form is Sees, but when it is feminine (meaning "sea"), the genitive is See, because feminine nouns do not take the genitive -s. In Welsh, gender marking is mostly lost on nouns; however, Welsh has initial mutation, where the first consonant of a word changes into another in certain conditions.
Modern English makes use of gender in pronouns, which are generally marked for natural gender, but lacks a system of gender concord within the noun phrase which is one of the central elements of grammatical gender in most other Indo-European languages.
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The grammatical gender of a noun affects the form of other words related to it.
The parts of speech affected by gender agreement, the circumstances in which it occurs, and the way words are marked for gender vary between languages.
Gender inflection may interact with other grammatical categories like number or case.
Such properties include animacy or inanimacy, "humanness" or non-humanness, and biological sex. Gender is considered an inherent quality of nouns, and it affects the forms of other related words, a process called “agreement”.
Nouns may be considered the “triggers” of the process, whereas other words will be the “target” of these changes.