(See How to Summarize Text or Speech, below.) Follow steps 1-5 below to summarize text.To summarize spoken material – a speech, a meeting, or a presentation, for example – start at step 3.
Build your comprehension of the text by reading it again more carefully.
Check that your initial interpretation of the content was correct. Use bullet points, and introduce each bullet with a key word or idea. If you're summarizing spoken material, you may not have much time on each point before the speaker moves on.
" This may seem repetitive, but it gives the speaker the opportunity to highlight any misunderstandings, or to clarify their position.
When you're paraphrasing conversations in this way, take care not to introduce new ideas or information, and not to make judgements on what the other person has said, or to "spin" their words toward what you want to hear.
We also explore the differences between the two skills, and point out the pitfalls to avoid.
When you paraphrase, you use your own words to express something that was written or said by another person.Putting it into your own words can clarify the message, make it more relevant to your audience, you can use paraphrasing to maintain a consistent style, and to avoid lengthy quotations from the original text or conversation.Paraphrased material should keep its original meaning and (approximate) length, but you can use it to pick out a single point from a longer discussion.Find equivalent words or phrases (synonyms) to use in place of the ones that you've picked out.A dictionary, thesaurus or online search can be useful here, but take care to preserve the meaning of the original text, particularly if you're dealing with technical or scientific terms. Simplify the grammar and vocabulary, adjust the order of the words and sentences, and replace "passive" expressions with "active" ones (for example, you could change "The new supplier was contacted by Nusrat" to "Nusrat contacted the new supplier").Instead, simply restate their position as you understand it.Sometimes, you may need to paraphrase a speech or a presentation.Used as part of your personal approach to goal-setting, mission and vision statements are useful for bringing sharp focus to your most important goal, and for helping you to quickly identify which opportunities you should pursue.In a conversation – a meeting or coaching session, for example – paraphrasing is a good way to make sure that you have correctly understood what the other person has said.In contrast, a summary is a brief overview of an entire discussion or argument.You might summarize a whole research paper or conversation in a single paragraph, for example, or with a series of bullet points, using your own words and style.