publishes rigorously peer-reviewed research across fundamental and applied sciences, to provide ecological and evolutionary insights into our natural and anthropogenic world, and how it should best be managed.
Frontiers in Ecology and Evolution publishes rigorously peer-reviewed research across fundamental and applied sciences, to provide ecological and evolutionary insights into our natural and anthropogenic world, and how it should best be managed. Elgar at the University of Melbourne is supported by an outstanding Editorial Board of international researchers.
As reported for other such societies, natural selection favored an earlier age at first reproduction (AFR) among women.
AFR was also highly heritable and genetically correlated to fitness, predicting a microevolutionary change toward earlier reproduction.
Typically, phenotypic trends observed in populations are compared with evolutionary predictions based on selection and heritability estimates, for example, using the breeder's equation (10, 11).
However, selection measured at the phenotypic level does not necessarily imply a causal relationship between the trait and fitness (12, 13) and, as a consequence, such predictions will often be inappropriate in the case of natural populations (14).
To overcome these problems, recent studies of wild birds and mammals have tested for microevolution by directly measuring changes in breeding values (16–22; see ref. The breeding value (BV) of an individual is the additive effect of his/her genes on a trait value relative to the mean phenotype in the population, in other words the heritable variation that parents transmit to their offspring (11).
In quantitative genetic (QG) notation, the phenotypic measurement can thus be written as is a residual term that may include environmental and nonadditive genetic effects and measurement error.
One could similarly argue that not much in evolution makes sense without recourse to ecological concepts: understanding diversity — from microbial adaptations to species assemblages — requires insights from both ecological and evolutionary disciplines.
Nowadays, technological developments from other fields allow us to address unprecedented ecological and evolutionary questions of astonishing detail, impressive breadth and compelling inference.