There are actually many variations for references citations depending, for example, on whether you are citing a book, journal article, or newspaper story, or the many different kinds of media, including audio recordings and film. For such a citation, list the last name of the author, followed by a comma, followed by the first initial(s) of the author(s), followed by a period.You would put the year the book was published in parentheses followed by a period, then the title of the book in italics using sentence case, followed by a comma, the place of publication, followed by a colon, and then the publisher, followed by a period.According to Dickens (2014b), “these viral infections were precipitated by record levels of rainfall around the peninsula” (p. According to a study by Adams (as cited in Franklin, 2016), 25% of all US federal prisoners have been diagnosed with some form of social disorder.
American Psychological Association (APA) style is often used in social sciences and other disciplines.
With APA or any of the styles listed in this paper, you need to use a citation if you quote text from another source, paraphrase an author or authors' ideas, or refer to her work, such as a study, original thinking, or even an elegant turn of phrase.
"Works Cited" section citations are very similar in MLA and APA style, as in this example of a work with multiple authors from Purdue OWL: Note that you would also use a hanging indent in MLA, but it tends to be a bit shorter; move the second and subsequent lines in by three spaces.
Spell out the first name of the author(s) in MLA style; add a comma before "et al."; use title case for the book, journal, or article title; omit the place of publication information; follow the name of the publisher with a comma; and list the date of publication at the end.
In any research paper, you draw on the work of other researchers and writers, and you must document their contributions by citing your sources, say Diana Hacker and Nancy Sommers in "A Pocket Style Manual, Eighth Edition." Citations, then, are the means by which you credit other researchers and writers when you use their work in your papers.
Understanding how to cite sources can be tricky, particularly since there are different styles for writing papers, including the American Psychological Association, Modern Language Association, and Chicago (Turabian) styles.MLA style is often used in English and other humanities papers.MLA follows the author-page style for in-text citations, notes Purdue OWL, an excellent citation, grammar, and writing website operated by Purdue University.If there are two authors, list the last name of each, as in: At the end of your paper, attach one or more pages titled "References." That section is essentially your biography.Readers of your paper can then turn to the references listing to read the full citations for each of the works you cited.When writing a journal article, literature review, convention paper, or any other academic document, authors must include in-text citations whenever they refer to, summarize, paraphrase, or quote from another source.In addition, every time a wok is cited within a paper (in APA, a parenthetical citation), a corresponding entry must be included in the reference list.An in-line citation—also called the in-text citation—is placed within a line of text.To create an in-line citation, cite the name of the author and the date (in parentheses) of the article, report, book, or study, as this example from "A Pocket Style Manual" shows: Note how you list the page number at the end of the in-text citation in parentheses followed by a period (if it is at the end of a sentence).The following guidelines and examples are taken from the APA Publication Manual, 6th edition, 2nd printing, which details rules and application of APA style in research papers, including in-text citations, endnotes/footnotes, and references.For more information, consult the APA Style Manual website.