Among the 22.5 million beneficiaries enrolled in a Part D plan in 2006, approximately 89 percent enrolled in a plan without gap coverage, with the remainder enrolled in more generous plans with generic-only or generic and brand coverage during the gap (The Kaiser Family Foundation 2007). Beneficiaries also could choose between Medicare Advantage Prescription Drug (MAPD, 6 million in 2006) plans, which bundle drug, inpatient, and outpatient benefits; and stand-alone Prescription Drug Plans (PDP, 16.5 million in 2006).Tags: Prison Reform EssayHomework TodaySimple Essay The Person I AdmireBurglary Research PaperApp To Write Essays On IpadSolving Perimeter And Area ProblemsWord Problem Solving StrategiesComparative Literature The Early Years An Anthology Of EssaysClassificatory Essay
You will see what I mean when we discuss the APA PDF citation format in detail, but for now, here is a guide in listing the authors.
Last Name A & Last name BCarlson & Lee*Use ampersand (&) instead of “and.”Up to five names can be included, but in the subsequent in-text citation for works with more than two authors, write only the last name of the first author followed by et al.
After the name of the sixth author, write three ellipsis points followed by the last author’s name. Title of Online Periodical, Volume number (issue number if available), pages.
Rogers, M.*Only seven authors can be included in the reference list.
There are 20 references cited in this article, which can be found at the bottom of the page.
If you need to cite a standard webpage, a blog, a book that isn't published in print, or a forum post in APA format, you've come to the right place. You only need to include the available information from the source. For the reference list, not all the elements listed may be present in a specific reference. About 20 percent of Medicare beneficiaries are estimated to have diabetes (Sloan et al. In 2006, other MAPD beneficiaries with employer-supplemented insurance had no coverage gap and lower copayments than individual subscribers, that is, U. S.-75 brand copayments for up to a 100-day supply; their benefits were similar in 2005 as in 2006. 2008), and these beneficiaries may be at particularly high risk of reaching the coverage gap because they are often prescribed multiple, chronic medications to control their diabetes and prevent cardiovascular complications (Tjia and Schwartz 2006). The Integrated MAPD plans were available in California. Some recent studies suggest that drug use and adherence have increased while patient out-of-pocket spending decreased with Part D (Lichtenberg and Sun 2007; Madden et al. Since 2006, more beneficiaries have been enrolling in plans offering at least some gap coverage (Medicare Payment Advisory Commission 2007, 2009). Although the program is now entering its fourth year, the effects of the coverage gap and existing types of gap coverage on total drug costs, out-of-pocket spending, and adherence are still unknown. We conducted parallel analyses to compare Medicare beneficiaries with a coverage gap versus without a gap in an integrated delivery system MAPD, and to compare beneficiaries with a gap versus with generic-only gap coverage in a network-model MAPD. In 2005, individual subscribers had generic-only benefits with U. To focus on a group with substantial and regular need for drug therapy, we examined total and out-of-pocket drug spending and drug treatment adherence among Medicare beneficiaries with diabetes mellitus. S. brand copayments for up to a 30-day supply before the gap. S.,600 in cumulative annual out-of-pocket expenditures, beneficiaries had U. S. generic copayments (for up to a 100-day supply). Another 10.4 million beneficiaries received coverage through employer or union plans in 2006 (The Kaiser Family Foundation 2006). Gaps in coverage may increase out-of-pocket spending for beneficiaries because they pay the full price of drugs filled during these periods; beneficiaries also may decrease drug use or treatment adherence, leading to decreases in total drug costs. In at least some cases, lack of coverage leads to higher rates of downstream clinical events, including hospitalizations (Hsu et al. The Part D coverage gap involves substantial periods of uncovered drug use, but it affects only beneficiaries with high annual drug spending levels. Within the Part D market, the number of plans providing at least some generic and brand-name drug coverage has increased from 5 percent of MAPDs in 2006 to 17 percent in 2008, and decreased from 2 percent of PDPs in 2006 to 0.1 percent (a single PDP) in 2008. "The Growing Burden of Diabetes Mellitus in the US Elderly Population." Archives of Internal Medicine 168 (2): 192-9; discussion 99.