The second reliable reference is another manuscript, likewise a letter, from the President of the Peruvian Assembly, member of the clergy and man of letters Pedro de la Gasca (1485–1567), to the Council of the Indies in 1549, in which he described the measures taken by Francisco Pizarro to distribute the coca stores.
The second reliable reference is another manuscript, likewise a letter, from the President of the Peruvian Assembly, member of the clergy and man of letters Pedro de la Gasca (1485–1567), to the Council of the Indies in 1549, in which he described the measures taken by Francisco Pizarro to distribute the coca stores.29 The third reference, and the first to be published, is attributed to traveler Pedro Cieza de León (1520–1554), whose chronicle of Peru, published in Seville in 1553, refers to the chewing of coca leaves with a chalk-like powder to assuage hunger and increase strength and stamina.Tags: The Merchant Of Venice Shylock EssayPapers On Abortion Pro LifeCreative Problem Solving ActivitiesHow To Write Recommendation Letter For University ApplicationTerm Papers FormatCheaters Never Prosper Essay
Vermutlich war es das extrem giftige Dichlordiethylsulfid, das später als Senfgas in die Geschichte des 1. Vermutlich war er selbst das erste Opfer dieses Kampfstoffs, als er 1861 an einer "Lungenverbreiterung" im Goslarer Schwiechelthaus starb.
THE development of anesthesia in general and local anesthetics, in particular, required a cultural change.
The concept of pain (especially obstetric pain) was linked to the concept of original sin, and the ability to endure pain was regarded as a sign of character and, in men, was even associated with virility.
1 The change that took place in Western Europe between 17, encompassing the industrialization, progressive humanization, and democratization of society, created an atmosphere favorable to the discovery of anesthetics.
10 Further, according to Bühler, the first written record of the coca leaf is a mention by the Spanish Dominican friar Tomas Ortíz in 1499, 11 a reference which is also cited by other authors. A recent review of documents on Friar Tomas Ortíz (1470–1538) 14 show that he was ordained in the Convent of San Esteban in Salamanca, Spain, in 1511, and it was only later that he set out for America, where he eventually became bishop of Santa Marta (Colombia).
14–16 For some writers, Florentine Amerigo Vespucci (1451–1512) was the first European to document the human use of the coca leaf.
This article reviews the discovery and evolution of local anesthesia from the Spanish discovery of the coca leaf in America, outlining certain ill-known aspects of this early period.
contains the highest concentration of the alkaloid known as cocaine in its leaves, up to 0.7–1.8% by weight.
7 The first reliable account we have of coca leaf consumption (if we disregard Amerigo Vespucci's version) is a manuscript letter from the bishop of Cuzco, Friar Vicente de Valverde (15? 28 This letter is important because Friar Vicente de Valverde accompanied Francisco Pizarro throughout the conquest of Peru and was present at all of the relevant events.
, which is the leaf of a small tree that resembles the sumac found in our own Castile, is one thing that the Indians are ne'er without in their mouths, that they say sustains them and gives them refreshment, so that, even under the sun they feel not the heat, and it is worth its weight in gold in these parts, accounting for the major portion of the tithes.