With APA or any of the styles listed in this paper, you need to use a citation if you quote text from another source, paraphrase an author or authors' ideas, or refer to her work, such as a study, original thinking, or even an elegant turn of phrase.
When you cite a source, you can't simply repeat most of the words from the work to which you are referring.
General knowledge, such as 'Crick and Watson discovered the structure of DNA,' will not need referencing.
Common knowledge in the field is generally fine, too, although you should err on the side of caution.
In this case, you use the name of the organization or a recognized abbreviation.
For example, NHS, for the National Health Service, or WHO, for the World Health Organization.For example, This makes it clear that you could not access the original work, and that you correctly attribute the original findings to the researcher who actually performed the initial research.A few standards, such as Chicago style and the Council of Biology Editors (BCE) use a footnote numbering system, where a number is used and cross-referenced with the endnote section and bibliography: It is always best to over cite, and avoid accusations of plagiarism, but there are a few times that citation is not necessary.If you use one style all of the way through, there should be no problem, but mixing the styles makes things unclear to the reader and may well be punished by your supervisor.The American Psychological Association standard (APA-standard) is used in most social and psychological papers, and variations of the author/date style are used by many scientific disciplines.Referencing is an essential part of writing any research paper, so err on the side of caution.Common knowledge does not need to be referenced, and you can assume that any reader is fairly knowledgeable about the field.The MLA style in text citation has two variations, the author/page number, although the modern trend is for author/year/page number, such as If there are more than two authors listed, then the usual standard is to mention both (Sargeant & Mc Evoy, 2008).For multiple authors, it is usual to mention them all the first time, but to use 'et al.' afterwards.If you use class notes, some lecturers are not too worried about citations, although it is usually good practice to find a source saying the same information, from a textbook or journal.The text in this article is licensed under the Creative Commons-License Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0).