There is no task more important to the function of living cells than the synthesis of proteins.Tags: Detroit Tigers Jackie Robinson EssayAp Style EssayQualitative Dissertation OutlineEssay On My First Day In School After Summer VacationCover Page For AssignmentGood Thesis Statements Child Abuse
During transcription, a strand of ribonucleic acid (RNA) is synthesized.
This messenger RNA (m RNA) is complementary to the portion of DNA that directed it—it has a complementary nucleotide at each point in the chain.
Since the sequence of letters in a gene determines the sequence of amino acids in the protein it encodes, a point mutation can change the amino acid sequence of the resulting protein.
Sometimes a change in the protein's amino acid sequence can have dramatic results.
After roughly ten nucleotides have been strung together, the continued addition of complementary base pairs takes place more readily in a process called elongation.
The speed of addition of new nucleotides is remarkable—between twenty and fifty nucleotides per second can be added at body temperature. There are certain sequences of nucleotides that stop elongation, a process called termination.A specialized protein called an enzyme controls when transcription occurs.The enzyme called RNA polymerase is present in all cells; eukaryotic cells have three types of this enzyme.Based in San Diego, John Brennan has been writing about science and the environment since 2006.His articles have appeared in "Plenty," "San Diego Reader," "Santa Barbara Independent" and "East Bay Monthly." Brennan holds a Bachelor of Science in biology from the University of California, San Diego.Regions of the genome, typically called genes, provide instructions for creation of protein molecules, which perform most of the important jobs in cells.Within cells, a variety of mechanisms determine when a gene is switched on and how active it will be.DNA has a section called the promoter region that identifies the sites where transcription starts and must be recognized by one subunit of the RNA polymerase called the sigma (σ) factor.Recognition between the promoter and the σ-factor helps to regulate how often a particular gene is transcribed.There are several stages involved in the synthesis process, including transcription and translation.The primary role of deoxyribonucleic acid ( DNA ) is to direct the synthesis of proteins.