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In black hole attack the collusion node introduces itself as a legit one to have a path to destination but instead uses that packet and modifies it [3, 4].
The issue of “one-hop data broadcasting” minimally affects heavy network traffic because it creates loads of unnecessary and duplicate data packets that travel through alternative routes [5–7]. Since transmission performance can be improved, if a link failure can be repaired locally, there would be no need for any data retransmission of the source.
Local link repairs may increase the number of data path hops and thus increase the delay. In this method, when a node detects a link failure, it runs a handshake process between the neighbors to repair the broken path, rather than applying a one-hop data broadcast to the neighbors.
In AODV-BR, there is no problem for building alternative routes in the reply phase.
This makes the management and maintenance of the alternative routes become easier.
In MANET, nodes can freely enter or exit their network; therefore, the network topology is constantly changing and it is important to find the right path and select the next node.
The most important issues in MANET are security and routing.
Each node has a main and an alternative routing table.
AODV-ABL sends data according to the routes in the main routing table and stores the alternative routes in the backup routing table. In scenarios with bidirectional traffic load, when the source node sends data to the destination, the destination node transmits data to the source as well.
When topology changes improperly (e.g., when the speed increases), the alternative routes, being made in reply phase, may even break if the main paths fail.
In AODV-BR, when a node detects the failure link, it applies a single data broadcast to its neighbors, which sends the packets to destination via the alternative route and then sends a RERR packet to the source node to recreate a route discovery phase. It tries to repair link failures without informing the source node and disrupting data delivery.