The opening, which is usually a paragraph or two in length, introduces the research question and explains why it is interesting.To capture the reader’s attention, researcher Daryl Bem recommends starting with general observations about the topic under study, expressed in ordinary language (not technical jargon)—observations that are about people and their behaviour (not about researchers or their research; Bem, 2003). According to Bem, this would be a poor way to begin a research report: Festinger’s theory of cognitive dissonance received a great deal of attention during the latter part of the 20th century (p.Tags: Oxidation Research PaperWines And Spirits Business PlanAcademic Research Paper OutlinePlanning In BusinessWhite Paper Ghost WriterMaths Homework Ks1Cultural Differences Essay ConclusionRichard White Middle Ground ThesisMost Embarrassing Moment EssayEd Chinese A2 Research Based Essay
Immediately after the opening comes the literature review, which describes relevant previous research on the topic and can be anywhere from several paragraphs to several pages in length.
However, the literature review is not simply a list of past studies.
The dining room was described as similar to a fine restaurant except that tipping was not required.
The absence of tipping was a central theme in the orientation lecture, mentioned frequently to emphasize the quality of care along with the advantages of having paid in advance.
The introduction begins on the third page of the manuscript.
The heading at the top of this page is the full title of the manuscript, with each important word capitalized as on the title page.
Here are some titles from recent issues of professional journals published by the American Psychological Association.
Below the title are the authors’ names and, on the next line, their institutional affiliation—the university or other institution where the authors worked when they conducted the research.
Here we consider each of these sections in detail, including what information it contains, how that information is formatted and organized, and tips for writing each section.
At the end of this section is a sample APA-style research report that illustrates many of these principles.