Science And Society Essay

Science And Society Essay-37
The reason that this period was characterized as the science for gentlemen is because only wealthy, male could have a place in the Universities and generally in the scientific society.This phase is characterized by scientific theories and emerging practical orientation and relevance.Once agriculture had given the possibility of settled civilizations, with written record and specialized social classes, the hand-to-mouth methods of common sense could be replaced by something much more scientific.

The reason that this period was characterized as the science for gentlemen is because only wealthy, male could have a place in the Universities and generally in the scientific society.This phase is characterized by scientific theories and emerging practical orientation and relevance.Once agriculture had given the possibility of settled civilizations, with written record and specialized social classes, the hand-to-mouth methods of common sense could be replaced by something much more scientific.

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But science in this phase was still, to our modern view, unscientific in two major respects—it was traditional and it was esoteric.

Scientific knowledge was confined to a limited group among the priesthood and it was cast in a mold of tradition which rendered change and progress slow.

In remote prehistoric times, our early ancestors worked by trial and error combined with simple, intuitive common sense.

This pre-scientific approach, however, was combined with the non-scientific methods of control that we call magic, and with equally non-scientific rationalizations in the field of explanation.

These ancient researchers put the bases for the development of science and gave to the society very important information about astronomy, mathematics, physics and medicine.

In this phase we could report that the ideas were not very systematic.Today it seems that we are again in the process of launching a new phase—one in which social as well as natural phenomena are to be made amenable to scientific understanding and rational control.As with natural science, social science too has had its earlier stages.The theoretical development was in a very low level and so was the development in mathematics.The importance of this phase was the primitive discoveries that took place. Nedeva Maria, Lecture “The story of science”, 2006) SCIENCE FOR GENTLEMEN This period unrolls from the 15th to the 19th century, mainly in the Western and Northern Europe.We can meet remarkable examples of scientific achievements in technology and also in society but they will be analyzed in the next chapters.THE PHASES IN INSTITUTIONAL DEVELOPMENT OF SCIENCE As the introduction prepared us for this, we can discern three different phases in the history of institutional development of science.Science, in the more restricted sense in which it is normally employed in English-speaking countries, is that activity by which today we attain the great bulk of our knowledge of and control over the facts of nature.This activity, like other human activities, has developed and evolved, and by no means all the stages in its evolution have merited the title of scientific.They got experience on resolving problems of humanity and so science appeared.Nowadays, science is involved in every aspect of our life, even in subjects that we can not imagine.

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