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Only if the correct chemical group is attached to the right histone residue, DNA can be unwound and be transcribed to execute the genetic program required to maintain cell type-specific functions.
Chances are slim that mutations accumulate in individual somatic cells and their progeny to make up a significant tumour mass since cellular repair programs exist to prevent this scenario from happening.
Errors can also occur beyond DNA replication such as during transcription or translation when proteins are made, and when they are activated, shut off or recycled.
Smoking does not only correlate with the incidence rate of lung cancer, there is a causal relationship.
Tobacco smoke creates polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, which interfere with DNA thereby causing mutations that perturb the fine balance of physiological processes in the cells of our body.
More than 3 billion nucleotides are never translated into proteins.
Scientific World Essay
Their sequences plus the information on the DNA of the approx.
All these aspects also apply to the modern life sciences. Innovation creates new scientific disciplines, which have never existed before.
If only a single gene existed that caused cancer, one would just need to identify this individual oncogene to combat the tumour.
Other protein modifications occur on different time scales.
The spatial arrangement of DNA and proteins in the cell nucleus depends, among other aspects, on the acetylation pattern of histone complexes, which wind up the DNA.