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TQM enables organisations to obtain a high degree of differentiation and to reduce costs.In an article contained within the TQM magazine, Popplewell and Aghaie (1997) cite the British Standards Institute definition.
Moreover, improved business performance is not limited by the scale of the organisation. Problems with Total Quality Management We have already considered the difficulty in attempting to define TQM, but what other issues are there to face when considering TQM? was at its pinnacle while other nations were beginning the long and arduous journey to economic and industrial recovery.This was attributed to the scant availability of such items during the years of the war.This hints at the flexibility and durability of TQM. Competitive advantage can be gained and a company’s competitive capability can be enhanced when implementing an effective TQM process. Numerous studies have shown that less than half of companies who have attempted to adopt a TQM approach have enjoyed any form of success. The picture painted by Gatchalian (1997) is even bleaker.She reports that the success rate of companies implicating TQM is as low as 20-35 per cent.Order books were full, and quality was of little importance while there were orders to fill. It was at this time during the American occupation that Deming arrived in Japan.During this time he became acquainted with members of the Union of Japanese Scientists and Engineers.The main reasons for failure were uncertain implementation processes, waning enthusiasm for the concept, deficient levels of empowerment on all levels, ineffective communication strategies through lack of planning and newly formed teams failing to act in a co-ordinated fashion.Noronha (2003) cites failure can be linked to a culture clash where TQM processes imported from other countries do not marry well with local society. Although all of these reasons are contributing factors in the potential shortcomings of successful TQM implementation, the overwhelming theme discovered through research points to the role that senior management plays in the failure of TQM.An employee, through being continuously engaged is in an ideal position to make an active contribution to continuous improvement. The development of Total Quality Management At the conclusion of World War II American business enjoyed a dominant position within the global market. Petersen, 1999) Demand for consumer products had intensified. During this period American companies shifted their focus from yield and quality to other factors such as finance, marketing and restructuring the organisation.